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Addressability, Privacy & Public Policy

The Economic Impact of the Market-Making Internet

The Economic Impact of the Market-Making Internet

This research about the economic value of the internet is conducted approximately every four years and highlights the importance of the internet ecosystem, which enables job creation and market-making opportunities. This highly valued, extensive piece of economic research is particularly important to the growth of companies, including search and social platforms, content publishers, ad agencies, consumer and B2B brands, as well as the full spectrum of players supporting and supported by the internet.


Brand Disruption, Strategies & E-Commerce

Brand Disruption 2023: Four Key Disruptions Challenging Brands, Retailers, and the Digital Ecosystem

Brand Disruption 2023: Four Key Disruptions Challenging Brands, Retailers, and the Digital Ecosystem

Each year IAB releases a seminal brand report exploring how brands and retailers are innovating to address the market disruption driven by the rise of digital B2B platforms, changing media consumption habits, omnichannel shopping, and ongoing privacy legislation—disruptions that have been largely and dramatically accelerated by the pandemic.

This year’s report, our sixth annual study, identified four key disruptions challenging brands, retailers, and the digital ecosystem, including:

  • Welcome to H-Commerce: Growth Powered by the Fusion of Online and Offline Shopping.
  • A Seismic Shift: The Explosion of the Creator Economy and Redefining “Must-See TV.”
  • Beyond The Hype: The Metaverse Will Be a Shopping Medium.
  • The Privacy Priority: Real-World Repercussions for All.

White Paper: Understanding and Serving Consumer Needs during COVID-19 and Beyond

Beginning in February 2020, a global pandemic caused by the Coronavirus (AKA COVID-19) with no immediate vaccine has led to dramatic actions by public and private institutions. Almost immediately, consumers made significant lifestyle changes that impact how they shop, bank, seek healthcare and provide for their families.

To explore how organizations can pivot to accommodate these ever-changing consumer needs and concerns, Experian has published a white paper outlining the consumer audience segments, occupations and behaviors most impacted by COVID-19.


Overcoming the Diversity Gap in Mobile Gaming

Gaming has rapidly become the world’s most dominant form of entertainment—in 2020, revenues for the sector were predicted at $159.3 billion globally, surpassing that of TV ($105 billion), movies ($48 billion) and music ($17billion).1 Thanks to growing smartphone and internet penetration, mobile gaming now makes up 57%2 of 2020 global video games revenue. Alongside this growth, today’s gamer population is the most diverse in the industry’s history, encompassing a spectrum of ethnicities, ages, genders, sexual orientations, and abilities.


From Discovery to Purchase: The Role of Community Commerce

TikTok, in partnership with Publicis Groupe and WARC, released a white paper exploring the role social communities play in influencing purchase decisions, outlining the huge potential for brands to engage with audiences and increase unplanned purchases by narrowing the funnel between product discovery and purchase through “community commerce,” a new type of social commerce which sits at the intersection of community, shopping and entertainment.

With the rising importance of a media ecosystem in which audiences can go from product discovery to purchase with little more than a click or tap, this report aims to specifically explore the role that social communities play in influencing purchase decisions, and the major implications it has for media planning.


The Buyer’s Guide to Creator Marketing

How has the rise of influencer marketing opened the opportunity for creators? What does the evolution of creator marketing look like? And how can advertisers use these new tools to engage with audiences?

IAB Europe in collaboration with TikTok has released a new guide to answer all these questions and more. The guide aims to helps advertisers understand the opportunities that this new world of creator marketing brings as well as provides definitions for creators and an overview of the landscape in Europe. It also offers a step-by-step guide and best practices for creator marketing campaigns to ensure they are optimized for success.


2021 Marketplace Outlook

2021 Marketplace Outlook

In IAB’s final impact study of 2020, we learned buyers are optimistic about 2021 and expect a 6% overall increase in their 2021 budget (versus estimated actual spend in 2020). However, they have concerns about: 1) Preparing for a cookie-less future / loss of identifiers, 2) The need for 1st party data, and 3) Cross-platform measurement solutions.


Global State of Small Business Report

On December 7, Facebook released the latest wave of its “Global State of Small Business Report”, which has been tracking since the shutdown began the economic and societal impact of COVID-19 on small businesses.

  • According to the report: while nearly half of all firms surveyed reported a “significant impact” from the shutdowns occasioned by the latest wave of COVID-19, the industry that reported the highest impact was manufacturing, at 49%.
  • Agriculture, farming, and mining industries have seen the fastest rebound, as impacts from the shutdown dropped from 44% to only 22%, in the latest wave.
  • In keeping with previous findings however, the pandemic disproportionately impacted female business leaders: 31% of female business leaders surveyed spent more time on domestic tasks, compared to 26% of male business leaders.
  • Finally, and fortunately, optimism about the future among business leaders has continued to  increase across each successive survey wave. In the latest survey, 56% of respondents confirmed they were optimistic or very optimistic about the future of their business, up from 54% in Wave I.

Consumer Research

The 2022 Creative Forecast: Five creative behaviors for the future shaped by cultural shifts over the last year

Each year, Meta Creative Shop looks at how culture has shifted and how the creative climate has changed in response to see what’s on the horizon to help brands connect more deeply with consumers. This year, Meta Creative Shop reviewed 100 standout campaigns on Meta technologies around the world and identified five key creative behaviors rooted in the rebirth of big ideas that are driving business impact. Download the full report to explore the five behaviors in depth.

Empower the crowd
Elevate unheard stories
Shop the moment
Solve it IRL
Unlock the you-verse


IBM Watson Advertising’s Winter 2022-23 Seasonal Outlook

Between La Niña and the Polar Vortex, winter 2022-23 promises to keep things interesting, but marketers don’t need to get caught in the cold unprepared. A recent survey by IBM Watson Advertising shows that 80% of consumers are excited about the arrival of winter weather – which will have a direct impact on their consumption and purchase decisions.
Learn more about what why a rapidly changing winter forecast presents an opportunity for agile marketers, and what you can expect from consumers in the IBM Watson Advertising Winter 2022-23 Seasonal Outlook.


IBM Watson Advertising’s Fall 2022 Seasonal Outlook

IBM Watson Advertising’s Fall 2022 Seasonal Outlook

Are you looking forward to the arrival of fall weather: cooler temperatures, changing leaves, and all things pumpkin? You’re not alone. A recent survey by IBM Watson Advertising shows that 69% of consumers say they feel happy or relieved when fall weather first appears in the forecast. When fall weather does arrive, they say they will make distinct changes to their behaviors, and purchases.
Learn more about what a fashionably late fall season means for your business and what you can expect from consumers in the IBM Watson Advertising Fall Outlook.


Unlocking the Metaverse

From visiting virtual destinations to trading in-game collectibles, from everyday enjoyment to million-dollar commercial activities, we are hearing more and more about the metaverse, an emerging technology set to revolutionize the future. In March 2022, YouGov conducted an analysis of over 4,000 U.S. and U.K. consumers to understand:

  • The top reasons people are entering the metaverse
  • Which brands resonate most with Metaverse Trialists & Metaverse Curious audience segments
  • The activities, attitudes, and desires driving current and potential users into the metaverse
  • The motivations and concerns of various audiences across the metaverse adoption cycle

COVID-19 Consumer Sentiment Research

The COVID-19 pandemic is changing how we live, work, and make decisions. For the advertising industry, that means reassessing our relationship with consumers. Using TrueX’s UP//LIFT survey technology built to assess the brand funnel impact of advertising campaigns, the organization is continually monitoring consumer sentiment and outlook in the wake of COVID-19 and what roles audiences want brands to play.


Data & Measurement

2023 Outlook Survey: Ad Spend, Opportunities, and Strategies for Growth

2023 Outlook Survey: Ad Spend, Opportunities, and Strategies for Growth

This 2023 Outlook Survey was conducted by IAB to provide the digital ad-supported ecosystem with a forward-looking view into the 2023 ad spending marketplace (including both spend levels and strategies) being projected by buy-side ad investment decision-makers, primarily at brands and agencies.

This study provides:

  • A view into overall spend as well as at the channel and category levels
  • A perspective on opportunities and strategies for growth
  • Insights into two key, growing spaces: retail media networks (RMNs) and emerging technology (e.g., metaverse, NFTs, AR, etc.)

Measurement 360: An advanced way to think about measurement strategy

As the media landscape continues to change, purchasing behaviors are becoming increasingly complex, but advertisers still need a holistic view of the consumer across their entire journey. To enable advertisers to gain this holistic view of the customer journey in an agile, privacy-safe way and figure out if (and how) their strategies are actually working, Meta, in collaboration with Deloitte, developed a measurement framework called Measurement 360. Measurement 360 helps advertisers utilize multiple measurement solutions in a connected framework to track all components of a brand’s marketing strategy. Download the full report to explore Measurement 360 in-depth and understand the 6 steps organization can take to implement the framework.


State of Data 2022 (Part II): Preparing For The New Addressability Landscape

State of Data 2022 (Part II): Preparing For The New Addressability Landscape

The State of Data 2022 Part II: Preparing for the New Addressability Landscape report marks the fifth year and sixth installment of IAB’s State of Data research, which examines how changes in privacy legislation, the deprecation of third-party cookies and identifiers, and platform policies are affecting data collection, addressability, measurement, and optimization. For this installment, IAB commissioned MediaScience to conduct a qualitative research study on how brands, agencies, and publishers are evolving their approach to consumer privacy, as well as working with their internal and external partners to meet consumer privacy expectations. Key insights include:

  • The New Privacy Landscape: Interviewee perceptions of the landscape along with a self-assessment of preparedness, financial impact, and changes in privacy legislation
  • Current Approaches: How interviewees are navigating the landscape, i.e., what can and is being done in terms of data collection, enrichment, addressability, and more
  • Recommendations: Consumer trust & value exchange

State of Data 2022: The Measurement Dilemma

State of Data 2022: The Measurement Dilemma

The IAB State of Data 2021 report revealed industry leaders believed they were infinitely more prepared for the deprecation of third-party cookies and identifiers than their organizational readiness demonstrated. This lack of preparedness should have served as a call to action for industry leaders to both educate themselves and implement these imminent and ever-evolving standards, caused by updates to privacy and compliance regulations, the emergence of new business and technical requirements, platform upgrades, and the evolution of rules and mandates by technology companies such as Apple, Facebook, and Google. While the industry’s sense of preparedness grows, actual implementation has made little progress.


Changing the Narrative on Bias in Advertising

This report contains initial research findings from IBM Watson Advertising on using artificial intelligence to detect and mitigate unwanted bias in advertising technology, a research initiative they began in Summer 2021. For this initial study, IBM Watson Advertising partnered with The Ad Council to understand the possible presence of unintended bias in algorithms and data from a creative message testing effort in their COVID-19 awareness campaign, “It’s Up to You,” the largest U.S. vaccination education effort to date. The campaign ran in late spring 2021 and focused on helping drive awareness of the available vaccine options.

The work so far has revealed several learnings and opportunities about the presence of bias in advertising and led to additional paths for exploration. One of the most significant observations is: bias can exist in the data and algorithms that are employed for digital advertising, and that bias is not always immediately observable to the human eye.


2021 Fall Impact Study

2021 Fall Impact Study

This is the second of two studies conducted by IAB in 2021 to provide the ad-supported internet ecosystem with insights into buyer investments and trends needed for strategic planning. The first study (conducted March 2021) provided a baseline for ad spend in 2021 by channel.

This Fall Impact report provides insight into whether ad investments, planning, strategies, and tactics are shifting for 2022.  The survey was completed by those with line of sight into budgets, strategies, placements, and campaign KPIs.


Collaborative Data Solutions: Data and Identity in the Era of Permission

Collaborative Data Solutions: Data and Identity in the Era of Permission

With the depreciation of third-party cookies, increased concern about the provenance of third-party data, and evolving privacy regulations, digital marketers are looking at both familiar and evolving collaborative data solutions to compete in a rapidly-changing data landscape. This white paper from Winterberry Group explores a variety of ways for brands, agencies, publishers, and data providers to collaborate in the areas of sharing, protecting, activating, and monetizing privacy-compliant data assets.

As a Premier Sponsor of this paper, Wiland worked with Winterberry Group to offer their perspective. Curated from interviews with their executives and other data industry experts, this white paper analyzes:

  • The market drivers making collaborative data solutions necessary
  • How collaboration and the future of the market rely on permission
  • The leading collaborative data solutions and their outlook
  • Collaboration’s impact on the advertising and marketing ecosystems

IAB Q1 2021 Impact Study

IAB Q1 2021 Impact Study

The IAB Q1 2021 Impact study offers buy-side trends and insights to determine whether ad investments, planning, strategies, and tactics are shifting for 2021. We surveyed marketers, media buyers, and planners to understand the stability of the marketplace, opportunities to grow business and expectations for UpFronts/NewFronts.

Key Findings:

  • Ad buyer optimism continues to increase in 2021
    • Few ad buyers (15%) felt that 2020 events had a great impact on their annual budgeting
  • The Upfronts season will begin to experience a decline in 2021 investments as digital spending increases

IAB State of Data Initiative 2021

IAB State of Data Initiative 2021

In two parallel studies as part of IAB Programmatic+Data Center’s State of Data initiative, it was revealed that the industry’s perceived sense of readiness around the loss of third-party cookies and identifiers does not align with its concerns for future ad tracking, targeting, retargeting, or data investment. Investment in first-party data is publishers’ best hope to head off $10B in lost revenue and advertisers’ best hope to retain addressability.


Artificial Intelligence Use Cases and Best Practices for Marketing

Artificial Intelligence Use Cases and Best Practices for Marketing

Data. It’s the lifeblood of digital marketing — so it should come as no surprise that artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) are an essential part of a modern marketer’s toolkit. During the past few years, AI has made significant inroads in the digital ad ecosystem for audience and product development, creative testing and measurement, and is now expanding into the realm of creative planning, compliance and privacy, and even identity management in a post cookie world.


The Effectiveness of Brand Messaging in Driving Sales Incrementality

Is brand marketing on Facebook truly at odds with direct response (DR)? Or can the two work in tandem to help advertisers achieve both short- and long-term goals? To find out, Facebook teamed up with Analytic Partners and GroupM to examine the Marketing Mix Model (MMM) results of more than 500 Facebook brand and DR U.S. campaigns. Contrary to the assumption that only lower-funnel approaches help to achieve short-term goals, the MMM analysis found that both brand and DR advertising campaigns on Facebook are consistently effective in driving sales.


DEI, Multicultural, and Talent Development

Overcoming the Diversity Gap in Mobile Gaming

Gaming has rapidly become the world’s most dominant form of entertainment—in 2020, revenues for the sector were predicted at $159.3 billion globally, surpassing that of TV ($105 billion), movies ($48 billion) and music ($17billion).1 Thanks to growing smartphone and internet penetration, mobile gaming now makes up 57%2 of 2020 global video games revenue. Alongside this growth, today’s gamer population is the most diverse in the industry’s history, encompassing a spectrum of ethnicities, ages, genders, sexual orientations, and abilities.


Digital Media

Digital Audio

IAB Digital Audio Measurement Guide 2022

IAB Digital Audio Measurement Guide 2022

The IAB Digital Audio Measurement Guide offers a menu of existing measurement solutions and standardized metrics that enables buyers and brands to better understand how and whether their campaigns are moving the needle on brand and performance KPIs.

This document, in partnership with the IAB Audio Committee and IAB Audio Board, highlights the basic pillars of digital audio and podcast measurement. It also includes examples of companies that provide services to support the different measurement types. Download this useful strategic and operational guide to help build your digital audio strategy.


Internet Advertising Revenue Report: Full Year 2021

Internet Advertising Revenue Report: Full Year 2021

U.S. digital advertising experienced tremendous growth in 2021. During the past year, the industry was able to capitalize on the resurgence of marketing budgets throughout the year (following a decline in Q2 of 2020) and the influx of isolated consumers who relied on digital media as their primary connection during the pandemic. Overall, digital ad revenue increased 35.4% year-over-year—the highest growth since 2006.

Digital ad revenues benefited as the entire digital market has expanded. According to a study by Deighton Associates, commissioned by IAB, the internet economy has grown seven times faster than the U.S. economy over the past four years and now accounts for 12% of the U.S. GDP. As consumer time spent and attention on digital media channels continues to grow, advertising expenditures allocated to digital media are following, particularly across digital video (including CTV/OTT), digital audio, social media, and search. Advertisers also looked to capitalize on opportunities to message consumers who, buoyed by government stimulus packages and a reopening economy, increased spending in 2021.


IAB Outlook: 2022 Digital Ad Ecosystem Report

IAB Outlook: 2022 Digital Ad Ecosystem Report

The US digital advertising industry defied expectations with yet another year of double digit growth, and in 2021, is expected to remain a bright spot in an otherwise tough year.

Seismic changes are looming, however. Industry leaders urge us all to focus on changing consumer expectations, regulatory reforms and a clear and present talent crisis—or risk not only growth, but relevancy.

IAB and PwC have conducted interviews with approximately 20 thought leaders within the digital advertising ecosystem who have provided consensus around three key areas to keep top of mind when strategizing for 2022 success:


FY 2020 Podcast Advertising Revenue Report

FY 2020 Podcast Advertising Revenue Report

The fourth annual IAB U.S. Podcast Advertising Revenue study, prepared for IAB by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (“PwC”), has found that Podcast advertising will grow as much in the next two years as it did in the past decade. Driven by a particularly strong fourth quarter (+37% YoY), Podcast advertising revenues climbed to $842 million in 2020, up from $708 million in the year prior.


2020/2021 IAB Internet Advertising Revenue Report

2020/2021 IAB Internet Advertising Revenue Report

The digital advertising sector continues to show tremendous resilience despite the ongoing ramifications of the COVID-19 pandemic. The “IAB Internet Advertising Revenue Report” uses data and information reported directly to PwC Advisory Services LLC (PwC) from companies selling advertising on the internet as well as publicly available corporate data. This report is an essential planning tool to understand the insights behind last year’s digital marketing trends and the outlook for 2021/2022.


IAB Outlook: 2021 Digital Ad Ecosystem

IAB Outlook: 2021 Digital Ad Ecosystem

While there is much optimism around the tectonic shifts—and subsequent growth opportunities—across the entire digital advertising-supported ecosystem, there is also an undercurrent of pessimism driven by the belief that not all players are currently equipped to embrace new models and thrive. While the worry is legitimate, it can also be lethal: the greatest and most immediate threat to growth of the digital advertising-supported ecosystem is inaction by key players.


Digital Video

The Great Unification of Converged TV

As content and consumption evolve to meet the needs of modern viewers, brands and agencies are challenged by a fragmented media landscape – one that is no longer bound by time, platforms, locations, or devices. To better understand today’s “converged TV” market – which encompasses linear TV, CTV, and digital video ads delivered via desktop and mobile – Innovid worked with a third-party firm to survey more than 250 brand and agency advertisers in September 2022. The report findings highlight the industry’s need for a unified view of advertising and audiences, better understanding of cross-platform campaign performance, and relevant, actionable insights to reach and engage with the right consumers “where they are.”


Global Benchmarks Report: CTV Takes Center Stage

To understand how connected television (CTV) and video advertising trends evolved during a year of uncertainty, Innovid analyzed over 286 billion global video ad impressions from January to December of 2021. Researchers looked across mobile, desktop, CTV devices, and social platforms to inform an in-depth analysis of video advertising and gain benchmarks and insights globally. This report aims to equip marketers with insights and best practices for their video advertising strategies as we move into a new marketing landscape.


2021 Video Ad Spend & 2022 Outlook

2021 Video Ad Spend & 2022 Outlook

Now in its ninth year, the IAB 2021 Video Ad Spend & 2022 Outlook study provides a lens into the trends within the digital video market and offers guidance for buyers and sellers on how they can position and differentiate their video initiatives based on where the challenges and opportunities reside.

To quantify the size and growth rate of the digital video market (including CTV, social media, and short-form), IAB, in partnership with Standard Media Index (SMI) and Advertiser Perceptions, has released in this study the first-ever total U.S. digital video advertising spend estimates for 2020 and 2021 and projections for 2022.


Internet Advertising Revenue Report: Full Year 2021

Internet Advertising Revenue Report: Full Year 2021

U.S. digital advertising experienced tremendous growth in 2021. During the past year, the industry was able to capitalize on the resurgence of marketing budgets throughout the year (following a decline in Q2 of 2020) and the influx of isolated consumers who relied on digital media as their primary connection during the pandemic. Overall, digital ad revenue increased 35.4% year-over-year—the highest growth since 2006.

Digital ad revenues benefited as the entire digital market has expanded. According to a study by Deighton Associates, commissioned by IAB, the internet economy has grown seven times faster than the U.S. economy over the past four years and now accounts for 12% of the U.S. GDP. As consumer time spent and attention on digital media channels continues to grow, advertising expenditures allocated to digital media are following, particularly across digital video (including CTV/OTT), digital audio, social media, and search. Advertisers also looked to capitalize on opportunities to message consumers who, buoyed by government stimulus packages and a reopening economy, increased spending in 2021.


Understanding Bias in AI for Marketing

Understanding Bias in AI for Marketing

Companies that seek to be successful in the future should develop genuine relationships with their customers, built on trust. Customers reward these companies with deep engagement around products and services and accompanying brand loyalty which often cannot be acquired through monetary means. Marketing and advertising are key practices for developing customer relationships.


IAB Outlook: 2022 Digital Ad Ecosystem Report

IAB Outlook: 2022 Digital Ad Ecosystem Report

The US digital advertising industry defied expectations with yet another year of double digit growth, and in 2021, is expected to remain a bright spot in an otherwise tough year.

Seismic changes are looming, however. Industry leaders urge us all to focus on changing consumer expectations, regulatory reforms and a clear and present talent crisis—or risk not only growth, but relevancy.

IAB and PwC have conducted interviews with approximately 20 thought leaders within the digital advertising ecosystem who have provided consensus around three key areas to keep top of mind when strategizing for 2022 success:


Decoding CTV Measurement: An In-Depth Look at Reach, Frequency, and ROI

To help marketers better understand the opportunities with CTV and simplify the intricacies of measurement, Innovid and the ANA conducted a study of 20 of the leading U.S. advertisers. They sought to understand whether CTV could be a significant driver of reach, whether fragmentation led to issues with duplication, and whether excessive frequency was a prevalent issue. They also estimated the true ROI of CTV. These findings can be found in the report, designed to arm marketers with the tools they need — including a set of new KPIs — to unlock the mysteries of CTV measurement and further their investment in the biggest screen in the home.


Q1 2021 Video Benchmarks

In Q1, 2021, the CTV share of impressions grew and 30-second ads reached an unprecedented high in Extreme Reach’s video benchmarks. 15-second ads hit an all-time low and premium publishers regained the lead over media aggregators. New to this report is a look at how aggregator and premium publisher impressions in Q1 break out by platform. The full report provides an industry-wide snapshot and identifies additional trends across performance metrics for video advertising.


2020 Digital Video Ad Spend

2020 Digital Video Ad Spend

2020 was a banner year for Digital Video advertising—particularly for Connected TV (CTV). Both increased viewership and the fluidity of Digital Video ad buying and optimization resulted in increased share for media companies in the streaming space.

Targetability, addressability, incremental reach, and the opportunity to leverage first party data—have made 2021 a sellers’ market. In fact, advertisers report that they expect CTV prices to go up in parallel to prices in Linear TV. Increases in programmatic activation of CTV are also expected to lift prices across the entire market.


The Year Streaming Went SUPERNOVA: Global Omni-Channel Benchmarks Report 2020

2020 upended the way we engage with content, and brands have had to adjust accordingly. As consumers flocked to their biggest (and smallest) screens, marketers followed suit and adapted their strategies to center around the home. Download Innovid’s Global Omni-Channel Benchmarks Report 2020 to see what their data revealed about video and display advertising trends in such an unprecedented year, and gain insights to guide your 2021 marketing strategy.

Report Highlights:

  • Global CTV impressions increased 60% year over year
  • Programmatic impressions served to CTV increased by over 200% year over year
  • Advanced creative video formats generated a 309% lift in engagement. For display, dynamic creative generated a 37% lift in CTR over standard creative

2020/2021 IAB Internet Advertising Revenue Report

2020/2021 IAB Internet Advertising Revenue Report

The digital advertising sector continues to show tremendous resilience despite the ongoing ramifications of the COVID-19 pandemic. The “IAB Internet Advertising Revenue Report” uses data and information reported directly to PwC Advisory Services LLC (PwC) from companies selling advertising on the internet as well as publicly available corporate data. This report is an essential planning tool to understand the insights behind last year’s digital marketing trends and the outlook for 2021/2022.


IAB Outlook: 2021 Digital Ad Ecosystem

IAB Outlook: 2021 Digital Ad Ecosystem

While there is much optimism around the tectonic shifts—and subsequent growth opportunities—across the entire digital advertising-supported ecosystem, there is also an undercurrent of pessimism driven by the belief that not all players are currently equipped to embrace new models and thrive. While the worry is legitimate, it can also be lethal: the greatest and most immediate threat to growth of the digital advertising-supported ecosystem is inaction by key players.